I’ve read a number the top search result webpages about ‘What is a home inspection’ and I think it’s time for me to add my thoughts. There is a lot of misconception because each author has their own view based on if they are the buyer, seller, or real estate agent, or any of the other number of people involved in real estate. So, I’m throwing my own two cents in from the perspective of an inspector (I’m going to try to be as unbiased as possible).
Home inspections are a good way for home buyers to have a qualified individual examine a home after a home is in contract but before the sale closes. Typically there are a stated number of days the buyer has to have it inspected.
A home inspection is an examination of a home to determine the condition of a home on a specific day. Inspectors do not tear into things. I often get asked what is behind the wall at an area of concern. Unfortunately, inspectors don’t have x-ray vision so we look for clues that may indicate the condition behind the wall but, truthfully, it is impossible to tell with certainty what is behind a wall, or under a floor for that matter.
All home inspections should include the major systems of a house. Roofs, structural, foundations, electrical, HVAC, plumbing, exterior, windows and doors, even some appliances, should all be included in a home inspection. If it’s part of a house, and it’s not cosmetic or removable, it’s usually inspected. Ohio does not have any laws detailing the particulars of a home inspection so make sure your inspector is in good standing with InterNACHI or ASHI, the two main home inspector accrediting organizations. This ensures you get a quality inspector.
If you read online about home inspections you will find many recommendations that the buyer be present for the inspection. I totally agree for two reasons. First, communication is best when it’s face to face. The paperwork, payment, and introduction to the house work way better if the buyer is present. Furthermore, it lets the buyer bring up any areas of concern. If you have concerns about something in particular, always bring them up. You hired me and I’m happy to spend extra attention on the things you’re concerned about. At the end of the inspection I can affirm your suspicion, or hopefully put your mind at ease.
Second, if there any issues you may have missed I can point them out. Whenever I find something the buyer and real estate agents missed I always get questions. Specifically, everyone wants to know how big of a deal is the issue and what is involved in fixing it. I know of some inspectors who believe it is there job to simply tell you there is a problem and tell you to get a licensed professional to fix it. This approach is taken to reduce liability, but it raises concerns and costs. I’ve found numerous issues with electrical box breakers and in discussing the problem with the buyer I find out there dad is an electrician. Problem solved for $15.
How do you know if you’re getting a good inspection? There are a few things all home inspectors should do, but are not necessarily required to do. First, your inspector should walk the roof if it’s possible. Any shingle roof that is a six pitch or less is easily walked. Around here, that means around three quarters of all roofs should be walked. I walk roofs and have no idea how an inspector can determine the quality of the roof, chimneys, and penetrations (pipes sticking up through the roof) without walking roof. For the roofs that cannot be walked (metal is slick, concrete, slate, and clay can be loose or get damaged) your inspector should put a ladder up to the eaves on all sides to look. Your report should also indicate that the roof was not walked so you know the inspection was not as thorough.
Another big area inspectors skip is the crawlspace. Often there is restricted access which can be dangerous for the inspector if problems occur (who wants to find a bees nest or raccoon and not be able to get out?). Restricted access is a valid reason not to enter. However, I know of inspectors who only look in the crawlspace from the entrance even with the required assess opening. It’s nearly impossible assess the quality of a crawlspace without going into it.
It's also not necessarily in the standards to take the face off the main panel box. All the problems I find are behind the cover. For example, it's impossible to find over heated wires and double taps without removing the cover.
Finally, I recommend looking for your own home inspector. Your realtor may give you a few names and that’s fine. If they are giving you options then they want you to get a good inspection. There are realtors who will only recommend one inspector. Sometimes they only make one recommendation because they know some inspectors are not good. Often though, it’s because the one inspector they recommend is easier, which helps them sell more houses. I know realtors who always choose the inspector who doesn’t go in crawlspaces. Your house is a major investment and you should use a good inspector, not an easy one.
A home inspection is something you should do but should not be afraid of. Your house can’t ‘fail’ and most things are simple fixes. It’s always best for you to be present at the inspection so you can learn as much as you can about your future house. Your inspector is there to help you.
I have to admit, this book is all about my inner nerd. Most people, including other inspectors, don’t care about knowing their enemy. Most people believe pests in the home are enemies. Many times with good reason. Jones’s book is a broad look at the pests that inhabit our homes and how they got there.
If you think about it, most pests that move into our homes have millions of years of evolution that have made them very adept at living outside our homes. So, why do pests move into our homes? Mice and rats move in because of the food we leave around. Birds move in because they can’t tell the difference between a rocky outcrop, which they naturally live in, and your overhangs. Insects, however, are a different story.
All insects evolved to live in nature. Over time though, they have adapted themselves to living with humans. A few insects have gone so far that they have evolved to live with humans. Lice and bedbugs have been living with humans so long that their natural habitat is now us. Many beetles originally ate grains in the wild before moving into our cupboards. Some beetles originally ate carrion before moving into our kitchens.
The book provides great insight into why pests move into our homes. Knowing why lets us fight them better. Many of the small bugs you find wandering your home come in because of the dry shelter our homes offer. Insects find it hard dealing with rain. When you’re a little bug, raindrops can end you. So, insects wander into our houses to escape the rain. Fortunately, these insects often find our homes too dry and die.
Are all insects pests? Not according to Jones. Pests are only pests when they reach pest proportions. A wasp can be a pest while an ant may not. The wasp can cause physical danger while and ant can do very little.
Over time, the pests that inhabit our lives have changed. Carpet beetles used to be a way of life until the vacuum came along. Bed bugs were accepted as a way of life until DEET did them in in the 1970s. Now that DEET is no longer used, bed bugs have returned. Is it really necessary to chemically treat a house with pesticides because it has insects but not a pest problem? Pesticides are strong chemicals and should not be used indiscriminately.
By understanding where our pests come from we can more effectively prevent the conditions that lead to these guests. Jones takes a refreshing look at exactly what constitutes a pest. It’s not a pest until it’s a pest.
Like many people, when I was a kid I remember being told “Don’t let the bed bugs bite” I remember thinking that bed bugs were some type of mystical bug that used to live in filthy beds hundreds of years ago, so I believed. Today, in the 21st century, bed bugs have returned.
Scientifically speaking, bed bugs really are bugs. To an entomologist, a bug is a type of insect that has mouth parts capable of piercing and sucking fluids as opposed to insects that chew. Bugs are classified as hemipterae. Bed bugs are very flat, ovular, and have a red or rusty color as can be seen below.
Since 2009 bed bugs seem to have taken off. While most people (even some entomologists and most pest control professionals) would have had no chance at identifying bed bugs just ten years ago, today so many people have had run-ins with bed bugs that they are often be identified by non pest control professionals. Why this resurgence? And where were they before?
Bed bugs have grown to prefer biting humans but will feed on other animals, like pets, if available and necessary. Richard Jones in ‘House Guests, House Pest’ reviewed the commentary in Europe in the 1600s concerning the seeming arrival of bed bugs. While bedbugs did arrive on merchant ships and tended to affect port towns in Europe more than rural areas, the bed bug insurgence of the 1600s was due less to arrival and more to warmer homes and people taking notice of them.
Reports of bed bugs in Europe have existed for nearly 1000 years. Before that, bed bugs were found in Egyptian ruins pushing their verified coexistence with humans back to a few thousand years. Going even further back, the best guess is that bed bugs may have originally lived off bats and other animals in caves. At some point they were picked up by a human (or Neanderthal) and have been carried around hidden from sight ever since. They have coevolved with us long enough to prefer human blood.
As our houses became warmer they also became more inviting to the bed bug. In the 1600s and earlier, bed bugs were really more of a problem of the well off. As common people acquired better housing they also acquired more bed bugs (and other pests). Up until the WWII bed bugs were the way of life and most people dealt with them. WWII saw the invention and mass production of DDT. After WWII DDT became the pesticide of choice and was widely use. It was so effective against bed bugs that they seemingly disappeared.
The resurgence of bed bugs has occurred, so it is believed, because of two main factors. First, DDT is no longer used. DDT has been outlawed since the 1970s so why didn’t bed bugs come back sooner? This leads to the second reason, increased global travel. While DDT was used extensively in the first world, third world nations never had the money for DDT so bed bug number never flinched. Travelers brought bed bugs back home with them.
Bed bugs hitch rides with people by climbing into luggage. Never put your luggage on the floor of a hotel room. Also, never leave your clothes lying around either. If you must use hotels, keep your belongings on a table. Bed bugs can also hitch rides on shoes or the clothes you’re wearing. Most bed bugs live within several feet of a bed so be vigilant when near someone else’s bed. However, you can pick up a bed bug at just about any public seat. A bed bug may have arrived on the person who sat there before you.
Finding Beg Bugs
Bed bugs like to hide during the day so they can be difficult to find. However, you may be able to find them tucked along windows, baseboards, or in corners. They also like to hide behind items like pictures or wall paper.
The easiest way to spot a bed bug is to look for its fecal stains. Bed Bugs leave poop as small dots that often appear on walls in the place you would expect to find them.
These stains can also be found along the folds of mattresses or on the sheets (if you don’t wash them frequently).
Should you find bed bugs in your house, first, realize it’s probably not because of something you did. Bed bugs will live just about anywhere people sleep. Bed bug bites can be numerous if you have a large infestation. While the idea of bugs biting you in your sleep may freak you out, it’s not a major health problem. Bed bugs do not transmit diseases the way ticks or mosquitoes do.
Many people like to try to fix things themselves. Online you can find all kinds of supplies to rid yourself of bed bugs. Don’t bother. Call a professional pest control company. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to get rid of because of the way they like to hide. Also, bed bugs can go a year without eating. Getting rid of bed bugs requires a handful of approaches to be successful.
Bed bugs have been with humans for a long time. The idea of bugs biting you in your sleep may sound horrible, but really they are just more of a nuisance than health hazard. They have learned to survive and they are probably here to stay.